Resolutie over het momentum voor de oceaan: versterking van het bestuur en de biodi­ver­siteit van de oceaan

30 september 2022

European Parliament resolution on the momentum for the Ocean: Strengthening Ocean Governance and Biodiversity

The European Parliament,

  • having regard to the Commission communication of 11 December 2019 entitled ‘The European Green Deal’ (COM(2019)0640),
  • having regard to the European Parliament resolution of 15 January 2020 on the European Green Deal (2019/2956(RSP)),
  • having regard to the Joint Communication of the Commission and the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy of 10 November 2016 on ‘International ocean governance: an agenda for the future of our oceans’ (JOIN(2016)0049),
  • having regard to the European Parliament resolution of 16 January 2018 on international ocean governance: an agenda for the future of our oceans in the context of the 2030 SDGs (2017/2055(INI)),
  • having regard to the Joint Communication on the EU’s International Ocean Governance agenda of 24 June 2022 on International Ocean Governance “Setting the course for a sustainable blue planet”;
  • having regard to the Communication of the Commission of 20 May 2020 on the EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2030 (COM(2020) 380 final) and its objective of establishing a coherent network of 30% of marine protected areas in the European Union (EU) by 2030, and its resolution of 9 June 2021 (2020/2273(INI);having regard to Directive 2008/56/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 June 2008 establishing a framework for community action in the field of marine environmental policy (Marine Strategy Framework Directive),
  • having regards to Directive 2014/89/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 July 2014 establishing a framework for maritime spatial planning[1],
  • having regard to the European Parliament resolution of 25 March 2021 on the impact on fisheries of marine litter (2019/2160(INI)),
  • having regard to the Parliament report of 3 May 2022 entitled “Toward a sustainable blue economy in the EU: the role of the fisheries and aquaculture sectors” (2021/2188(INI)),
  • having regard to the European Parliaments Resolution of 6 July 2016 on Japans decision to resume whaling and the European Parliaments Resolution of 12 September 2017 on whale hunting in Norway;
  • having regard to the European Commission’s “Mission 2030: Restore our Ocean and Waters”[2] (“Mission Starfish”) under Horizon Europe
  • having regard to the Communication of the Commission of 10 October 2007 on “An Integrated Maritime Policy for the European Union” (COM(2007) 575 final),
  • having regard to the “Partnership Agreement between the European Union and the Members of the Organisation of African, Caribbean and Pacific States” resulting from the Post-Cotonou negotiations,
  • having regard to the ratification and entry into force of the Hazardous and Noxious Substances by Sea Convention (HNS), adopted in 2010, amending a previous instrument adopted in 1996;
  • having regard to the United Nations resolution entitled “Transforming our World: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development”, adopted at the UN Sustainable Development Summit on 25 September 2015 in New York, in particular Sustainable Development Goal 14 of the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (SDG 14), which encourages the conservation and sustainable exploitation of the oceans, seas and marine resources,
  • having regard to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 2015 Paris Agreement, which entered into force on 4 November 2016,
  • having regard to the UNFCCC Glasgow Climate Pact, adopted on 13 November 2021,
  • having regard to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), which entered into force on 29 December 1993,
  • having regard to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) signed on 10 December 1982 in Montego Bay, and entered into force on 16 November 1994,
  • having regard to the mandate of the International Seabed Authority established under the 1982 UNCLOS and the 1994 Agreement relating to the implementation of Part XI of the UNCLOS,
  • having regard to the IPCC Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate published on 24 September 2019,
  • having regard to the Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development (2021-2030) proclaimed by the United Nations,
  • having regard to the 2019 IPBES Global Assessment on biodiversity and ecosystem services,
  • having regard to the One Ocean Summit hosted by France in Brest from 9 to 11 February 2022,
  • having regard to the resolution entitled “End plastic pollution: Towards an international legally binding instrument” (UNEP/EA.5/L.23/Rev.1) adopted on 2 March 2022 by the
  • United Nations Environment Assembly held in Nairobi,
  • having regard to the resolution adopted by the UN General Assembly on 24 December 2017 on an International legally binding instrument under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea on the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Marine Biological Diversity of Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction (BBNJ) (A/RES/72/249),
  • having regard to the High-Level UN Conference to Support the Implementation of SDG 14 (UN Ocean Conference), that took place in Lisbon from 27 June to 1 July 2022,
  • having regard to the seventh high-level ‘Our Ocean’ conference hosted by the Republic of Palau on 13 and 14 April 2022,
  • having regard to the Lisbon Declaration adopted at the UN Ocean Conference in June-July 2022,
  • having regard to the United Nations Biodiversity Conference (COP 15) to be held in Montreal between 5-17 December 2022,
  • having regard to the WTO Agreement adopted as a result of the 12th Ministerial Conference of the WTO to end harmful fisheries subsidies,
  • having regard to the Bizerte Declaration adopted at the World Sea Forum in September 2022,
  • having regard to the EU Court of Auditors Special report 20/2022: EU action to combat illegal fishing – Control systems in place but weakened by uneven checks and sanctions by Member States,
  • having regard to the Commission communication of 19 November 2020 entitled ‘An EU Strategy to harness the potential of offshore renewable energy for a climate neutral future’ (COM(2020)0741),
  • having regard to the European Parliament resolution of 16 February 2022 on A European strategy for offshore renewable energy (2021/2012 (INI)),
  • having regard to the Special Report 26/2020 by the European Court of Auditors: Marine environment: EU protection is wide but not deep,
  • having regard to the European Parliament resolution of July 2021 on the establishment of Antarctic Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and the conservation of Southern Ocean biodiversity (2021/2757(RSP)),
  • having regard to the European Parliament resolution of 7 July 2021 on the impact of the fishing sector of offshore windfarms and other renewable energy systems;
  • whereas the European Parliament has declared a climate and environmental emergency and has committed to urgently take the concrete action needed to fight and contain this threat before it is too late; whereas biodiversity loss and climate change are interlinked and exacerbate each other, representing equal threats to life on our planet, and as such, should be urgently tackled together;

A. whereas nature is deteriorating at a rate and scale unprecedented in human history; whereas globally one million species are estimated to be at risk of extinction; whereas only 23 % of species and 16 % of habitats under the EU nature directives have a favourable status;

B. whereas the ocean covers 71% of the Earth’s surface, produces half of our oxygen, absorbs a third of Co2 emissions and 90% of excess heat in the climate system[3], and plays a unique and vital role as a climate regulator in the context of the climate crisis;;

C. whereas the world is going through aclimate and environment crisis , which requires global responses that identify common challenges, synergies and areas of cooperation;

D. whereas the deep sea is believed to have the highest biodiversity on earth, containing some 250,000 known species with many more remaining to be discovered, with at least two thirds of the world’s marine species still unidentified[4];

E. whereas the European Union (EU) and its Member States represent the world’s largest maritime area taking into account the maritime areas provided by the overseas countries and territories;

F. whereas the ocean also contributes to food security and health by providing a primary source of protein for more than three billion people, providing renewable energy and mineral resources, as well as creating jobs in coastal communities and acting as the vector of transport for our goods and facilitating our Internet communications;

H. whereas the ocean is currently under strong pressure from human activities, such as overfishing, detrimental fishing techniques, such as bottom-contacting fishing operations, pollution and industrial extractive activities and the climate crisis, leading to irreversible damage, such as ocean warming, rising sea levels, acidification, deoxygenation, coastal erosion, marine pollution, overexploitation of marine biodiversity, habitat loss and degradation and biomass reduction, which also have consequences on the health and safety of human and animal populations as well as on other organisms;

I. whereas according to IPBES and the IPCC, marine biodiversity is seriously endangered; whereas the EEA has issued warnings about the current state of degradation of the European marine environment and the need to rapidly restore our marine ecosystems by addressing the impact of human activities on the marine environment; whereas marine hotspots such as coral reefs, mangroves and seagrass beds are strongly degraded and threatened by climate change and pollution;

J. whereas failing to achieve the Paris Agreement’s objectives would have enormous environmental impacts and economic costs, including among other things, increasing the likelihood of reaching tipping points at which temperature levels would begin to limit nature’s ability to absorb carbon into the oceans;

K. Whereas whales enhance ecosystem productivity and play a significant role in capturing carbon from the atmosphere; whereas each great whale sequesters 33 tons of CO2 on average during its life; whereas calculations of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) point out that if whales were allowed to return to their pre-whaling numbers, this would lead to a significant increase of climate-positive phytoplankton, resulting in additional capture of hundreds of millions of tons of CO2 a year, equivalent to the sudden appearance of 2 billion trees;[5] whereas the protection of whales should be a priority in International Ocean Governance;

L. whereas the ocean should be recognised at international level as a global common and be protected in view of its uniqueness and interconnectedness, and for its essential ecosystem services for which current and future generations depend on for survival and well-being;

M. whereas the outermost regions (ORs) and islands, due to their geographical characteristics and specificities, help the EU to benefit from the geostrategic, ecologic, economic and cultural dimension of the ocean and give it responsibilities; whereas the ORs and islands are amongst the most affected in comparison to the rest of the EU or other developed world, in particular, by climate change and in terms of sustainable development;

N. whereas the European Environment Agency defined ocean governance as ‘managing and using the world’s oceans and their resources in ways that keep them healthy, productive, safe, secure and resilient’[6];

O. whereas the EU’s blue economy provides 4.5 million direct jobs and encompasses all industries and sectors related to the ocean, seas and coasts (such as shipping, seagoing passenger transport, fisheries and energy generation, as well as ports, shipyards, coastal tourism and land-based aquaculture); whereas ocean-related economic issues are an important element of the European Green Deal package and recovery plan, and the development of a sustainable blue economy, in respect of marine ecosystems, could greatly boost economic development, as well as job creation, especially in coastal and island countries and regions and in the outermost regions[7];

P. whereas, at the ‘One Ocean Summit’ in Brest in February 2022, a global coalition for blue carbon was launched by France and Colombia, and the high ambition coalition on the BBNJ was also launched;

  1. Calls on the EU to stand as a leader in protecting the ocean, restoring marine ecosystems, and raising awareness about the essential role that the ocean plays in maintaining a liveable planet for humans and animals and the numerous benefits it brings to our societies; in this context, considers it important to improve our relationship with the ocean; encourages the Commission to promote better integration of ocean conservation issues in upcoming climate and biodiversity conferences notably in COP15 and COP27;
  2. Expresses disappointment at the fact that the Treaty of the High Seas has not been adopted at the 5th Session, though acknowledges progress has been made; considers it imperative to have protection of biodiversity beyond national jurisdictions, to protect, conserve and restore marine life and sustainable and equitably use our shared ocean resources; calls on the Commission and the Member States to resume negotiations on the Treaty without delay as a matter of urgency in order to adopt an ambitious approach in the negotiations on a Treaty of the High Seas (BBNJ) that guarantees an international framework that is ambitious, effective and future-proof, which is essential to achieving the target of conserving at least 30% of the ocean and seas globally;
  3. Stresses that the Conference of Parties to the Treaty should have full competence to adopt effective management plans and measures for the MPAs, and is of the firm opinion that any kind of opt out mechanisms would undermine marine protection efforts; further underlines that the treaty should also include a fair and equitable mechanism for access and sharing of benefits from Marine Genetic Resources, and provide adequate funding to support the core functions of the Treaty, as well as financial, scientific and technical support for States that require it, through Capacity Building and Transfer of Marine Technology; calls on the European Commission and the Member States to advocate for the inclusion of the notion of the ocean as a global common in the preamble of future declarations and international treaties, especially BBNJ;
  4. Underlines that the upcoming climate and biodiversity conferences COP27 and COP15 will be crucial to ensure the centrality of oceans in the fight against climate change and the full achievement of the objectives of the Paris Agreement and the Convention on Biological Diversity; recognises that the good health of our ocean and seas is crucial to maintain its role in mitigating climate change and for staying within the temperature goal of the Paris agreement; Reiterates its call for the EU to push for an ambitious post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework in COP15 with targets to halt and reverse biodiversity loss, including through legally binding global restoration and protection targets of at least 30% by 2030;

Improving EU and international ocean governance

5. Considers that combating degradation of the ocean requires a considerable joint effort; calls for a global, systemic, integrated and ambitious governance;

6. Reiterates its call to Commission and Member States to support an international moratorium on deep-seabed mining[8];

7. Highlights the importance of taking stock of the links between the land and the sea into European policies, including nitrogen and phosphorous leakage resulting from intensive agriculture as well as plastic pollution; underlines also the importance of ensuring the mainstreaming of a One Health Approach, recognising the links between human, animal and environmental health;

8. Reiterates its concern that sectoral support provided by Sustainable Fisheries Partnership Agreements (SFPAs) often does not directly benefit local fisheries and coastal communities in third countries, and its calls on the Commission to ensure that SFPAs are in line with the SDGs, EU environmental obligations and CFP objectives; urges the EU to increase the transparency, data collection (particularly on catches, vessel registrations and labour conditions) and reporting requirements in SFPAs and to establish a centralised socio-economic database for all EU vessels regardless of where they operate;

9. Stresses the need to integrate at-sea labour and human rights considerations within the framework of global ocean governance; calls on the Commission to undertake targeted efforts to promote standards of decent work in the global fisheries industry, in recognition of the connection between labour and human rights abuses and unsustainable and destructive fishing practices, in particular IUU fishing;

10. Calls on the Council of the EU and its Presidencies to develop and implement a long-term strategic vision of maritime issues in order to make the Union a leader in the sustainable development of our ocean at international level and especially in protecting the ocean and its ecosystems in order to address the current environmental and climate crises;

11. Reiterates the principle of Policy Coherence for Development, to which the EU and its Member States have committed and which aims at minimising contradictions and building synergies between different EU policies; highlights in this regards the key role of EU development policies, which should help partner countries attain the above mentioned common goals for the ocean and humanity;

12. Stresses the importance of protecting whale populations, from both a biodiversity and climate perspective; strongly supports the continuation of the global moratorium on commercial whaling as well as the ban on international trade of whale products; calls on Japan, Norway and Iceland to cease their whaling operations; calls on the EU to tackle life-threatening hazards that whales and other cetaceans are facing, including ship strikes, entanglement in fishing nets, waterborne plastic waste and noise pollution;

Ensuring preservation in the face of climate and environmental crises

13. Reiterates its position from the Biodiversity Strategy of its strong support for the EU targets of protecting at least 30% of the EU’s marine areas and of strictly protecting at least 10 % of the EU’s marine areas; expects the new EU Nature Restoration Law to ensure the restoration of degraded marine ecosystems, considering that healthy marine ecosystems can protect and restore biodiversity and mitigate climate change, providing multiple ecosystem services; reiterates its call for a restoration target of at least 30 % of the EU’s land and seas, which goes beyond simple protection;

14. Reiterates its full support for the establishment of two new MPAs covering over 3 millions km² in the Eastern Antarctic and the Weddell Sea[9]; calls on the Commission and Member States to significantly strengthen efforts to achieve this ;

15. Supports the application of the European Union for Observer status of the Arctic Council; calls for enhanced protection of the Arctic region, including a prohibition on oil exploration and, as soon as possible, on gas exploration;

16. Reiterates its support for the prohibition of all environmentally damaging extractive industrial activities such mining and fossil fuel extraction in marine protected areas, reiterates its call on the EU to launch and fund scientific research programmes to map carbon-rich marine habitats in EU waters to serve as a basis for designating such areas as strictly protected marine protected areas, in order to protect and restore marine carbon sinks in line with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, and to protect and restore ecosystems, in particular those on the seabed, in line with the Marine Strategy Framework Directive, protecting them from human activities that could disturb and release carbon into the water column, such as bottom-contacting fishing operations;

17. Stresses the crucial need to streamline the integration of the coastal blue carbon ecosystems (mangroves, tidal salt marshes and seagrasses) in the European Green Deal and encourages the Commission to work further on the identification of robust, transparent and science-based methodologies for the proper accounting of carbon removals and emissions from those ecosystems in a manner that does no harm to other biodiversity objectives;

18. Highlights that the outermost regions and islands are essential for tackling challenges related to the ocean and calls on the EU to enhance their role in finding solutions for adaptation to climate change, protection of marine biodiversity and transition towards a sustainable blue economy, including through promoting ecosystem-based solutions; calls on the EU to better associate the outermost regions (ORs) in ocean strategies, including within the Integrated Maritime Policy;

19. Recalls the importance and urgency of reducing and avoiding marine litter, as plastic waste account for 80 % of all marine pollution, and plastics in the ocean is estimated to be around 75-199 million tons and may triple by 2040 without meaningful action according to UNEP[10]; welcomes the ongoing work on negotiations towards a global treaty on plastic pollution and calls on the UN Member States to reach an ambitious and effective agreement no later than 2024; underlines the necessity to address plastic pollution by reducing waste at its source, and cutting down on plastic use and consumption as a priority, and also increasing circularity; furthermore, expresses its support for clean-up actions; points to the plastics economy and its exponential increase in production over recent decades; calls for a systemic approach, in order to appropriately address plastic pollution, including microplastics, in the environment; Calls for international measures to end nuclear and military waste in the oceans, and practical solutions to limit their existing environmental and health impacts;

20. Welcomes the recently adopted WTO agreement on fisheries subsidies, which should swiftly be ratified by all parties, but regrets that an agreement was not reached to limit subsidies that increase overfishing and fleet overcapacity; calls on the Commission to further reach an agreement within the WTO context without delay ; underlines that fishing must be conducted in a sustainable way, ensuring that the negative impacts of fishing activities on the marine ecosystem are minimised and avoiding the degradation of the environment, as is the objective of the Common Fisheries Policy; calls on the Commission and Member States to take action against overcapacity and overfishing, including prohibiting subsidies which contribute to overcapacity and overfishing;

21. Recalls that Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing activities, and overfishing, represent a considerable threat to sustainable fishing and the resilience of marine ecosystems; welcomes the Commission’s commitment to follow a “zero tolerance” approach to IUU fishing but notes with concern the conclusion of the European Court of Auditors Special report 20/2022 that the effectiveness of control systems in place to combat illegal fishing is reduced by the uneven application of checks and sanctions by Member States; Calls on EU Member States to improve the implementation of the EU IUU Regulation and to follow up on the recommendations of ECA, and to ensure dissuasive sanctions against illegal fishing;

22. Is also concerned about cases of IUU fishing outside EU waters, calls for a strong global system of deterrent sanctions and a multi-pronged approach to fighting IUU fishing; stresses the need to limit the use of flags of convenience and reflagging, to address trans-shipment at sea and calls for the Commission to effectively promote beneficial ownership transparency of corporate structures and calls on the EU more broadly to strengthen anti-corruption capacity building by fostering cooperation between national agencies, increasing international cooperation, improving oversight of fishery agents in developing countries with support from the EU, and supporting regional monitoring, control and surveillance centres and task forces;

Promoting a sustainable blue economy

23. Recognises that the good health of our ocean is essential for the long-term sustainability of many activities, from fisheries to tourism, from research to shipping; Welcomes the potential for sustainable development and job creation which lies in a fully sustainable blue economy; and stresses that it is essential to support these sectors to become more sustainable and in adapting to the new standards of the European Green Deal;

24. Calls on the Commission and Member States to fully implement the Maritime Spatial Planning directive, taking into account all maritime economic activities, including fisheries, offshore energy installations, maritime transport routes, traffic separation schemes, port development, tourism and aquaculture, in an integrated and ecosystem-based approach, ensuring the protection of marine ecosystems; reiterates that further efforts are needed for the coherent implementation of Directive 2014/89/EU, which calls on Member States to apply “an ecosystem-based approach” (EBA) in their planning, in order to set an example for the global introduction of MSP;

25. Recalls that in addition to CO2 and NO2, the decarbonisation of maritime transport should include methane emissions, given that it is over 80 times more potent than CO2 over a 20-year period, making it the second most important greenhouse gas, contributing to about a quarter of the global warming experienced today;

26. Points out that black carbon is both an air pollutant and short-lived climate forcer that forms along with particulate matter (PM) during combustion, with a significant warming effect, and the second largest contributor to climate warming caused by ships; highlights the importance of protecting in particular the Arctic from shipping emissions and PM, and recalls that in Communication of 13 October 2021, the EU undertook to “lead the drive for Zero Emission and Zero Pollution shipping in the Arctic Ocean, in line with our Green Deal objectives and the Fit for 55 package”; calls on the EU to push internationally and work towards the adoption of concrete measures to achieve zero emission and zero pollution shipping in the Arctic;

27. Expresses concern of the underwater noise caused by maritime transport, piling and other marine activities, as well as of cetacean collisions with ships, that negatively impact marine ecosystems and welfare of marine species; calls on the Commission to identify and propose measures to address these;

28. Stresses that the ocean is vulnerable to offshore drilling of fossil fuels; emphasises that the use of fossil fuels will further contribute to and accelerate climate change; is of the view that the EU must cooperate with international partners in order to achieve a just transition away from offshore drilling of fossil fuels;

29. Reiterates its positions in the MRV Regulation[11] and the Emission Trading System directive to establish an Ocean Fund, to improve the energy efficiency of ships and support investment aimed at helping to decarbonise maritime transport, such as wind-propulsion, including in short sea shipping and ports;

30. Stresses the need for a rapid deployment of sustainable offshore renewable energy projects taking into account its impact on ecosystems including migratory species, and the environmental, social and economic consequences; stresses that Europe would benefit from building a strong home market for offshore renewable energy so as for Europe to further expand its technological leadership in this area and thus create new global export opportunities for European industry;

31. Stresses that the EU should lead by example by adopting ambitious legal requirements for decarbonising maritime transport and making it more sustainable, while supporting and pushing for measures that are at least comparable in ambition in international forums such as the IMO, enabling the maritime transport sector to phase out its GHG emissions globally and in line with the Paris Agreement; in the event of the adoption by the IMO of such measures, stresses that the Commission should examine the ambition and overall environmental integrity of the measures decided, including their general ambition in relation to targets under the Paris Agreement, to the Union economy-wide GHG emissions reduction target for 2030 and the achievement of climate-neutrality by 2050 at the latest, and if deemed necessary, make proposals to the Parliament and the Council that preserve the environmental integrity and effectiveness of Union climate action and recognise the Union’s sovereignty to regulate its share of emissions from international shipping voyages in line with the obligations of the Paris Agreement;

32. Welcomes the role of regional fisheries management organisations (RFMOs); urges the European Commission, within the scope of Regional Fisheries Management Organization's convention negotiations, to ensure that the approved management and conservations measures are in line with the ambitions of, or more ambitious than, the established in the Common Fisheries Policy, granting harmonized rules to EU fleet irrespective of the geographical area where they operate and grant level playing field to all fleets operating under these international conventions; calls on the Commission to encourage the creation of new RFMOs and to come forward with ambitious mandates to improve protection of fish populations and sustainable management of fish resources, reduce discards and improving the available data, compliance and transparency of decision-making; encourages a wider use of TACs and quota mechanisms, in particular in the RFMOs conventions negotiations and in Sustainable fisheries partnership agreements (SFPA), to ensure effective global preservation of fish resources";

33. Stresses the need to fully take into account the social needs linked to the transition of a sustainable blue economy; calls on the Commission and Member States to support reskilling and upskilling of the existing workforce as well as attracting new workforce with the needed skillsets for sustainable economic practices;

34. Calls on the Commission to carry out and build on existing socio-economic analyses on the challenges faced by fishing communities in the EU, with a view to identifying appropriate support measures and diversification to guarantee a fair and equitable transition;

Raising awareness, promoting research and knowledge

35. Stresses the need to support research and innovation on ocean climate adaptation and marine renewable energies, to make the EU a champion of green ships, fishing vessels, and ports; stresses that funding should be provided for deep-sea ecosystems and biodiversity; calls for strong action to tackle ship-source pollution and illegal waste discharge; calls on the EU to play a leading role in the establishment of green corridors and connections between green ports worldwide to strengthen and scale-up the green transition in the maritime sector; calls for strong action to tackle ship-source pollution and illegal waste discharge;

36. Considers that the development and production of sustainable marine fuels should be exponentially increased in the coming years, and that the EU and its Member States should invest in the research and production of sustainable maritime fuels as they present both an environmental and an industrial opportunity; calls on the Commission to examine the possibility of creating an EU research centre for sustainable marine fuels and technologies that would help to coordinate the efforts of stakeholders involved in the development of sustainable marine fuels;

37. Expresses its support for the Ocean Decade and the European Commission’s “Mission 2030: Restore our Ocean and Waters”[12] (Mission Starfish), to accelerate knowledge and data collection and regeneration of the ocean and to promote the cyclical vision of regenerating the ocean, seas and rivers through concrete and regional pilot projects

38. Recognises the need to integrate scientific communities to coordinate efforts for a sustainable ocean future that facilitates new ways of producing and sharing knowledge; calls on the EU therefore to advocate for the creation of an International Panel for Ocean Sustainability (IPOS), based on the model of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to provide foundations for future ocean governance and management;

39. Supports the efforts of the intergovernmental High Ambition Coalition for Nature and People, under the leadership of Costa Rica, France and the United Kingdom; welcomes the membership of the European Commission in that Coalition; recalls the EU’s commitment to achieving the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and marine resources as identified in SDG 14 of the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development;

40. Instructs its President to forward this resolution to the Council, the Commission and the governments and parliaments of the Member States.

[1] OJ L 257, 28.8.2014, p. 135.






[7] according to the Report ‘on Toward a sustainable blue economy in the EU: the role of the fisheries and

aquaculture sectors’ (2021/2188(INI)).

[8] 3 May 2022 Blue Economy Report


[10]; United Nations Environment Programme (2021). “From Pollution to Solution: A global assessment of marine litter and plastic pollution. Synthesis.” Nairobi.